Artistic formalism has been taken to follow from both the immediacy and the disinterest theses Binkley—; Carroll20— If you take the immediacy thesis to imply the artistic irrelevance of all properties whose grasping requires the use of reason, and you include representational properties in that class, then you are apt to think that the immediacy thesis implies artistic formalism. If you take the disinterest thesis to imply the artistic irrelevance of all properties capable of practical import, and you include representational properties in that class, then you are apt to think that the disinterest thesis implies artistic formalism.
Henry Nxumalo was the founding member of Drum magazine. He seems to have been intellectually closer to H.
Dhlomo and Peter Abrahams according to the latter's Return to Egoli  than to Bloke Modisane and Lewis Nkosi writers of the literary generation in which he is usually placed.
He was a historical figure of historical connections and transitions. The following essay of historical connections exemplifies this particular spirit of Henry Nxumalo.
Transformations and Variations from the s to the s.
In so doing, we do not deny its extrinsic or intrinsic distance from us, but instead make this distance part of the present as opposed to viewing it from a detached historical standpoint. In other words, an aesthetic presence based on such historical insight embraces rather than bypasses an awareness of this otherness or alienness.
In its broad outline it is this: Located as it was between two political conjunctures, the Defiance Campaign of which facilitated its emergence and the Sharpeville Massacre of which terminated its era by forcing it into exile, it developed cultural coordinates and articulated philosophical positions which found greater resonance and affirmation within an international black culture of our century.
Can Themba, a superb journalist and short story wrier; Lewis Nkosi, a literary critic and great conversationalist; Ezekiel Mphahlele, a literary editor and a brilliant literary scholar; bloke Modisane, was an actor, autobiographer and critic of jazz; Arthur Maimane, a short story writer and radio broadcaster; Henry Nxumalo, was a news editor and investigative reporter; Peter Magubane, a great photographer; Bob Gosani, was a superb photographer; and others.
It was the constellation of these writers which formed one of South Africa's brilliant literary schools. Although practically all these intellectuals were short story writers, some of whom dabbled in poetry, it is two critical works by Lewis Nkosi and Ezekiel Mphahlele, respectively, Home and Exile, and The African Image, which are seen today as perhaps representing the summit of this intellectual movement.
This retrospective evaluation should not be taken mean that the other creative endeavors from Sophiatown Renaissance writers were not of original consequence, for the short stories of Can Themba which originally appeared in the Drum magazine, and subsequently assembled together in The Will To Die, displayed a style whose originality thereafter was rarely surpassed in our literary history.
Though different from each other, one ambiguously celebrating the synthesis of cultures in the urban environment of the black township of Sophiatown, the other despairingly paying homage to the disappearing pastoralism of the rural areas, they both nevertheless established a trend which seemed to indicate that the genre of autobiography was best suited in engaging the imagination of this literary generation, in displacement of the novel form which the Sophiatown Renaissance writers never mastered, as the later novels of Mphahlele and Nkosi, respectively, The Wanderers and The Mating of the Birds, have shown.
Very few black South African writers, particularly of the male gender, have in a sufficient manner displayed a forte for this genre: The paucity of this literary generation in producing novels is all the more apparent when compared with the literary productiveness in this genre of their Nigerian counterparts: This comparison is not fortuitous as will be apparent in a moment.
Clearly then, The African Image and Home and Exile defined and articulated the cultural sensibility that was so characteristic of this literary generation. The fundamental importance of Mphahlele's The African Image lies not so much in the literary criticism it attempted to effect in the second half of the book, as in the splendid survey of the international black culture to which the Sophiatown Renaissance was indebted, so majesterially displayed in the first of the book.
In the third chapter of the book called "Roots", Mphahlele by implication argues for the essential importance of the Harlem Renaissance for the Sophiatown Renaissance.
It is outside the immediate confines of the book itself that we can see the monumental importance of the Harlem Renaissance for Mphahlele's literary generation.
In his autobiography ofAfrika My Music, Mphahlele makes clear that his first publication, a collections of short stories called Man Must Livecould not have been conceivable without his having read Richard Wright's collection of short stories, Uncle Tom's Children, published in From this set of coincidences, it is clear that the founding of the Sophiatown Renaissance as a literary school and as a historical phenomenon, was simultaneous with Mphahlele's discovery of Langston Hughes and the Harlem Renaissance.
Since Mphahlele was the literary editor of Drum magazine, around which most, if not all, Sophiatown Renaissance writers congregated, and since he was perhaps the principal exponent of this cultural movement, his encounter with the Harlem Renaissance had profound and deep implications within the Sophiatown Renaissance.
The effects of this particular singular encounter can be traced in the writings of two Drum writers: Retrospectively, it would seem that Ezekiel Mphahlele, Bloke Modisane and Nat Nakasa occupied one wing of the Sophiatown Renaissance, with the passion for the Harlem Renaissance and African-American culture being a central characteristic, and the other wing was in possession of Lewis Nkosi and Can Themba, with European literary tradition as their central focus.
Parenthetically, it ought perhaps be indicated that the relationship in 's between Ezekiel Mphahlele and Langston Hughes was not something really new in South African literary history, for in the 's Richard Wright had a decisive impact on Peter Abrahams which continued in a series of letters, as well as in the 's W.
DuBois had a tremendous influence on Sol T. Plaatje, which was also carried out in an exchange of letters.This collection explores representations of disability in the media using critical disability studies, media studies, cultural studies, and other interdisciplinary fields.
Activists, academics, artists, and allies are invited to submit a word abstract for the collection along with a word bio by July 27th, to mediaanddisability. In his essay “Ulysses, Order and Myth,” T.
S. Eliot predicated that rather than the narrative style of poetry popularized by poets of the Romantic era, poets of the twentieth-century would instead employ James Joyce’s “mythical method,” a technique characteristic of heavy mythological.
Related Book Ebook Pdf Twentieth Century Interpretations Of Gulliver S Travels A Collection Of Critical Essays 20th Century Interpretations: Reports Of Cases Determined In The Circuit Court Of The United States For The Third Circuit. The concept of the aesthetic descends from the concept of taste.
Why the concept of taste commanded so much philosophical attention during the 18th century is a complicated matter, but this much is clear: the eighteenth-century theory of taste emerged, in part, as a corrective to the rise of rationalism, particularly as applied to beauty, and. Twentieth century interpretations of Invisible man by Reilly, John M., , Are you sure you want to remove Twentieth century interpretations of Invisible man from your list?
Twentieth century interpretations of Invisible man a collection of critical essays. by Reilly. Immediately download the Ralph Ellison summary, chapter-by-chapter analysis, book notes, essays, quotes, character descriptions, lesson plans, and more - everything you need for studying or teaching Ralph Ellison.