In this sense, oligarchy is a debased form of aristocracywhich denotes government by the few in which power is vested in the best individuals. Most classic oligarchies have resulted when governing elites were recruited exclusively from a ruling caste—a hereditary social grouping that is set apart from the rest of society by religion, kinship, economic status, prestigeor even language.
Power Elite Essay Power Elite Essay Power elite refers to societal power under the control of a small number of actors or organizations sharing common interests. Working together, this elite can either create or ameliorate social problems.
For many people, the very existence of Power elite thesis power elite would be a social problem. Who really holds power in the United States? Or is it true that behind the scenes, a small elite controls both the government and the economic systems?
This is not an easy question to answer, for it is difficult to determine the location of power in a society as complex as the United States.
Elitist Models The Power elite thesis view of power usually derives from the analysis of Karl Marx. For Marx, economics was the basis of society, with other social institutions like the family, law, and religion playing marginal roles directed by the economic elite.
The significance of the elitist perspective is that a relatively small segment of society exercises power. Furthermore, while decision making may be shared, those who exercise power are largely in agreement on major issues.
So, for example, one might argue that elitists would be in agreement in efforts to avoid overtaxation but be less concerned about eliminating homelessness.
Karl Marx believed that 19th-century representative democracy was essentially a sham. He argued that industrial societies were dominated by relatively small numbers of people who owned factories and controlled natural resources.
Therefore, any key decisions made by politicians inevitably reflected the interests of the dominant bourgeoisie. Like others who hold an elite model of power relations, Marx believed that society is ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests.
Mills described a small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who controlled the fate of the United States—the power elite. Power rested in the hands of a few, both inside and outside government. Directly below are local opinion leaders, members of the legislative branch of government, and leaders of special interest groups.
Mills contended that these individuals and groups would in essence follow the wishes of the dominant power elite. At the bottom of the pyramid are the unorganized, exploited masses. The most striking difference from Marx is that Mills believed that the economically powerful coordinate their maneuvers with the military and political establishments to serve their common interests.
Although not necessarily diabolical or ruthless, the elite comprises similar types of people who regularly interact with one another and have essentially the same political and economic interests.
Mills failed to clarify when the elite opposes protests and when it tolerates them; he also failed to provide detailed case studies that would substantiate the interrelationships among members of the power elite.
Nevertheless, his challenging theories forced scholars to look more critically at the democratic political system of the United States. In commenting on the scandals that have rocked major corporations such as Enron and Arthur Andersen, observers have noted that members of the business elite are closely interrelated.
In a study of the members of the business elite of directors of Fortune 1, corporations, researchers found that each director can reach every other board of directors in just 3. That is, by consulting acquaintances of acquaintances, each director can quickly reach someone who sits on each of the other boards.
Furthermore, the face-to-face contact directors regularly have in their board meetings makes them a highly cohesive elite.
Finally, the corporate elite is not only wealthy, powerful, and cohesive; it is also overwhelmingly white and male. Pluralist Model While the notion of powerful elite interests does not seem as news breaking now as it did in the s, criticisms of the power elite thesis have continued.
Several social scientists insist that power in the United States is shared more widely than the elite models indicate.The theory of power elite claims that power is concentrated in the hands of a few and composed of people who occupy the top positions in society and have access to political power.
In other words this theory claims that a single . Most people in the mainstream already know that Hollywood is a liberal safe space that was the first to promote leftist causes such as socialism, drug use, feminism, hookup culture, atheism, environmentalism, homosexuality, and transsexualism.
JUST WAR AND IRAQ: I said below that I have yet to hear a satisfactory answer on why a quick war with Iraq would not be more just than the status quo of immiserating sanctions. Now Glenn Reynolds links to a Michael Walzer essay on a war with Iraq that provides one response.
The key grafs: "Defending the embargo, the American overflights, and the UN inspections: this is the right way to oppose. Elite theory argues either that democracy is a utopian folly, as it is traditionally viewed in the conservative Italian tradition, or that democracy is not realizable within capitalism, as is the view of the more Marxist-compatible contemporary elite theory permutation.
The Great Stirrup Controversy is the academic debate about the Stirrup Thesis, the theory that feudalism in Europe was largely the result of the introduction of the stirrup to cavalry. It relates to the hypothesis suggested by Lynn Townsend White, Jr.
in his book, Medieval Technology and Social Change. White believed that the stirrup enabled heavy cavalry and shock combat, which in turn. Oligarchy: Oligarchy, government by the few, especially despotic power exercised by a small and privileged group for corrupt or selfish purposes.
Aristotle used the term oligarchia to designate the rule of the few when it was exercised not by the best but by bad men unjustly. In this sense, oligarchy is a.