Senga Briggs, William Keogh Posted: December 18, Hits:
Evaluating both the actual decision and the decision-making process Managers have to vary their approach to decision making, depending on the particular situation and person or people involved.
The above steps are not a fixed procedure, however; they are more a process, a system, or an approach. They force one to realize that there are usually alternatives and that one should not be pressured into making a quick decision without looking at the implications.
This is especially true in the case of nonprogrammed decisions complex and novel decisions as contrasted to programmed decisions those that are repetitive and routine. One of the most difficult steps in the decision-making process is to develop the various alternatives.
For example, if one is involved in planning a workshop, one of the most crucial decisions is the time, format, and location of the workshop. In this case, one's experience as well as one's understanding of the clientele group greatly influence the selecting of alternatives.
Often decision trees can help a manager make a series of decisions involving uncertain events.
A decision tree is a device that displays graphically the various actions that a manager can take and shows how those actions will relate to the attainment of future events.
Each branch represents an alternative course of action. To make a decision tree it is necessary to: In extension, the decision-making process is often a group process. Consequently, the manager must apply principles of democratic decision making since those involved in the decision-making process will feel an interest in the results of the process.
In such a case, the manager becomes more of a coach, knowing the mission, objectives, and the process, but involving those players who must help in actually achieving the goal. The effective manager thus perceives himself or herself as the controller of the decision-making process rather than as the maker of the organization's or agency's decision.
As Drucker has pointed out, "The most common source of mistakes in management decision-making is the emphasis on finding the right answer rather than the right question. It is not enough to find the right answer; more important and more difficult is to make effective the course of action decided upon.
Management is not concerned with knowledge for its own sake; it is concerned with performance. Organizing is the process of establishing formal relationships among people and resources in order to reach specific goals and objectives.
The process, according to Marshallis based on five organizing principles: The organizing process involves five steps: In any organizing effort, managers must choose an appropriate structure.
Organizational structure is represented primarily by an organizational chart. It specifies who is to do what and how it will be accomplished. The organizing stage provides directions for achieving the planning results. There are several aspects to organizing - time, structures, chain of command, degree of centralization, and role specification.
Time Management Managers must decide what to do, when, where, how, and by or with whom.
Time management is the process of monitoring, analysing, and revising your plan until it works. Effective planning is a skill that takes time to acquire. It is difficult to implement because you have no one but yourself to monitor how effectively you are using your time.
Everyone has the same amount of time - hours per week. How that time is managed is up to the discretion of each person. One extension agent joked that he was so busy taking time management courses, he had little time left to manage.
Effective time management involves philosophy and common sense.
Time is not a renewable resource - once it is gone, it is gone forever. To function effectively, managers have to be able to prioritize and replace less important tasks with more important ones. Most of us work for pay for only 1, hours per year. Effective and efficient time management encourages us to achieve and be productive while developing good employee relations.Strategic planning affords stakeholders in an organization the opportunity to learn more about the organization, to share their perceptions of its strengths and weaknesses, and to discuss critical issues affecting, or likely to affect, the organization in the future.
The business plan and the strategic plan are both essential planning tools for your business. Where one may provide more value than the other depends on . A strategic plan is an agency’s comprehensive plan to address its business needs; i.e., to successfully carry out its programmatic mission.
Because strategic planning is . Strategic planning is an organization's process of defining its strategy, or direction, and making decisions on allocating its resources to pursue this grupobittia.com may also extend to control mechanisms for guiding the implementation of the strategy.
Strategic planning became prominent in corporations during the s and remains an important aspect of strategic management. This course provides a link between the traditional human resources functions (recruiting, staffing, training, performance appraisals, labor relations, and compensation and benefits), strategic planning, and meeting long-range organizational goals and objectives.
For example, a strategic decision may be to go forward with implementing an electronic medical record system, but the strategic planning meeting is not the place to discuss available systems, preferred data fields, or training required.