Zimbabwean History in Context: Examining the past allows us to understand how History influences our present and future.
Towers of Great Zimbabwe. Proto-Shona-speaking societies first emerged in the middle Limpopo valley in the 9th century before moving on to the Zimbabwean highlands.
The Zimbabwean plateau eventually became the centre of subsequent Shona states, beginning around the 10th century. Around the early 10th century, trade developed with Arab merchants on the Indian Ocean coast, helping to develop the Kingdom of Mapungubwe in the 11th century.
This was the precursor to the more impressive Shona civilisations that would dominate the region during the 13th to 15th centuries, evidenced by ruins at Great Zimbabwenear Masvingoand other smaller sites. The main archaeological site uses a unique dry stone architecture.
The Kingdom of Mapungubwe was the first in a series of sophisticated trade states developed in Zimbabwe by the time of the first European explorers from Portugal. They traded in gold, ivory, and copper for cloth and glass.
This Shona state further refined and expanded upon Mapungubwe's stone architecture, which survives to this day at the ruins of the kingdom's capital of Great Zimbabwe. This Shona state ruled much of the area that is known as Zimbabwe today, and parts of central Mozambique.
It is known by many names including the Mutapa Empirealso known as Mwene Mutapa or Monomotapa as well as "Munhumutapa", and was renowned for its strategic trade routes with the Arabs and Portugal.
The Portuguese sought to monopolise this influence and began a series of wars which left the empire in near collapse in the early 17th century. Relying on centuries of military, political and religious development, the Rozwi meaning "destroyers" expelled the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau by force of arms.
They continued the stone building traditions of the Zimbabwe and Mapungubwe kingdoms while adding muskets to their arsenal and recruiting a professional army to defend recent conquests.
The Ndebele fought their way northwards into the Transvaalleaving a trail of destruction in their wake and beginning an era of widespread devastation known as the Mfecane.
When Dutch trekboers converged on the Transvaal inthey drove the tribe even further northward, with the assistance of Tswana Barolong Warriors and Griqua Commandos. Bythe Rozwi Empire, along with the other smaller Shona states were conquered by the Ndebele and reduced to vassaldom. Mzilikazi then organised his society into a military system with regimental kraalssimilar to those of Shaka, which was stable enough to repel further Boer incursions.
Mzilikazi died in and, following a violent power struggle, was succeeded by his son, Lobengula. Colonial era and Rhodesia — [ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message Matabeleland in the 19th century. InRhodes obtained a concession for mining rights from King Lobengula of the Ndebele peoples. Rhodes additionally sought permission to negotiate similar concessions covering all territory between the Limpopo River and Lake Tanganyikathen known as "Zambesia".
In " Southern Rhodesia " became the official name for the region south of the Zambezi,   which later became Zimbabwe. The region to the north was administered separately and later termed Northern Rhodesia now Zambia. Shortly after Rhodes' disastrous Jameson Raid on the South African Republicthe Ndebele rebelled against white rule, led by their charismatic religious leader, Mlimo.
Shona agitators staged unsuccessful revolts known as Chimurenga against company rule during and Southern Rhodesia was annexed by the United Kingdom on 12 September Rhodesians of all races served on behalf of the United Kingdom during the two World Wars.
Proportional to the white population, Southern Rhodesia contributed more per capita to both the First and Second World Wars than any other part of the Empire, including Britain itself. Growing African nationalism and general dissent, particularly in Nyasaland, persuaded Britain to dissolve the Union informing three separate divisions.
While multiracial democracy was finally introduced to Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland, however, Southern Rhodesians of European ancestry continued to enjoy minority rule. It was the first such course taken by a British colony since the American declaration ofwhich Smith and others indeed claimed provided a suitable precedent to their own actions.
May Ian Smith signing the Unilateral Declaration of Independence on 11 November with his cabinet in audience. After the Unilateral Declaration of Independence UDIthe British government petitioned the United Nations for sanctions against Rhodesia pending unsuccessful talks with Smith's administration in and In Decemberthe organisation complied, imposing the first mandatory trade embargo on an autonomous state.
Smith declared Rhodesia a republic infollowing the results of a referendum the previous year, but this went unrecognised internationally. Meanwhile, Rhodesia's internal conflict intensified, eventually forcing him to open negotiations with the militant communists.
In MarchSmith reached an accord with three African leaders, led by Bishop Abel Muzorewawho offered to leave the white population comfortably entrenched in exchange for the establishment of a biracial democracy.
The Internal Settlement left control of the Rhodesian Security Forcescivil service, judiciary, and a third of parliament seats to whites. The purpose of the conference was to discuss and reach an agreement on the terms of an independence constitution, and provide for elections supervised under British authority allowing Zimbabwe Rhodesia to proceed to legal independence.
The bill then passed the Senate and was assented to by the President. With the arrival of Lord Soamesthe new Governor, just after 2 p.A survey was carried out at the University of Zimbabwe (UZ), Midlands State University (MSU), National University Science and Technology (NUST), Great Zimbabwe University (GZU), Chinhoyi University of Technology (CUT) and Bindura University to determine the use of the respective ISG frameworks available in these institutions in minimising risk .
A striking aspect of the distribution of “potentially available cropland” is that, from a regional perspective, much of Africa’s unutilized arable land is found in just a few countries (Chamberlin et al., , Deininger et al., ).Depending upon the definitions and assumptions used, as much as 90% of SSA’s unutilized arable land is located in just 6–8 countries ().
JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary sources. A review of “Becoming Zimbabwe. A History, c” By Blessing Miles Tendi 18th November History is the study of transformation and growth in society over time and space.
corporate governance regulations that include the proportion and selection of executive, non-executive directors and independent directors that will be subject to RBZ’s approval.
The RBZ also set up a new department dedicated towards corporate governance, risk management and internal audit. Google Groups allows you to create and participate in online forums and email-based groups with a rich experience for community conversations.