Co-operative interactions with fungi may have helped early plants adapt to the stresses of the terrestrial realm. Cladogram of plant evolution Plants were not the first photosynthesisers on land. These spores, known as cryptosporeswere produced either singly monadsin pairs dyads or groups of four tetradsand their microstructure resembles that of modern liverwort spores, suggesting they share an equivalent grade of organisation. This resistance is closely associated with having a desiccation-resistant outer wall—a trait only of use when spores must survive out of water.
All life started in the ocean, and like animals, plants had to move to land. Cyanobacteria, bacteria that can photosynthesize, were the first photosynthetic organisms to move to land. They got there about 1. Anyway, cyanobacteria had the place to themselves for half a billion years, and made some pretty nice home improvements during that time.
They released lots and lots of oxygen into the atmosphere, which made land a more appealing place to live. Once the other organisms figured that out, they started thinking, "Hey, now I want to live on land!
Plants sold their underwater homes about million years ago in favor of new, oceanfront views above water. But once they got to their drier homes with fewer shark attacks, they found benefits and challenges in their new environment.
Benefits of living on land: Less water, so plants needed to avoid drying out No support against gravity The algal ancestors of plants had uncomplicated bodies. This works for algae because the water they live in physically supports them. Plants had to develop new structures to deal with living on land.
New structures that plants developed included: Cuticles Roots Leaves These structures will be discussed in greater detail later. For now, know that the great diversity of plant life on Earth began with the move to land. Many plants have gone extinct in the history of life on Earth.
However, there are some plants that exist today that also are small, have alternation of generations, and do not have a vascular system. These plants are the bryophytes, and are the closest guess we have to what early land plants were like. Bryophytes are non-vascular, seedless plants that include the mosses, liverworts and hornworts.
When plants first colonized land, oxygen levels in the atmosphere were much lower than they are today, and carbon dioxide levels were higher.
Over time, as plants evolved new structures that allowed them to grow taller, wider and photosynthesize more, carbon dioxide levels dropped dramatically. Carrageenan is an algal product used in ice cream, soups, pudding and salad dressing.Land plants evolved from an algal ancestor.
Plants developed adaptations to survive on land • 1. Surface to prevent drying out. • 2. Pores for gas exchange • 3. Support to give structure to plant body • 4. Plumbing system to distribute nutrients and water. • 5. Adaptations plants had to make to be able to survive on land Essay Sample.
Many years ago, plants made the drastic move from water onto land. Although at first they had a very difficult time surviving on land, they gradually became acclimated to .
For example, they had needed an aquatic environment for both reproduction and to support the plant body, and they had to adapt to living without their aquatic surroundings.
In addition, they now had to face the problem of dehydration. Fortunately, they were able to form adaptations to overcome all of these problems and today they successfully live 3/5(3). Plants haven't always extended across the land as they do now.
All life started in the ocean, and like animals, plants had to move to land. Cyanobacteria, bacteria that can photosynthesize, were the first photosynthetic organisms to move to land. *Identify characteristics common to all plants.
*Compare and contrast vascular and nonvascular. *Explain which plant adaptations make it possible for plants to survive on land. There are a number of adaptations that allow plants to survive on land.
A prominent adaptation is the vascular system. This consists of xylem and phloem tissues that transport nutrients and water to various parts of the plants. This extensive transport system allows the plants to gain height and become large in size.