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Decentre Jean Piaget argued that to decentre is to be able to take into account more than one aspect of a situation at a time.
According to Piaget, this type of thinking was typical of a child in the pre-operational stage. The ability to conserve is an example of the ability to decentre. Defence mechanism A strategy used by the mind to defend itself from anxiety provoking thoughts.
Any aspect of a study which has an influence on participants to do or answer what is expected of them. A dissociative disorder where an individual loses their sense of identity. See the studies by Zimbardo and Rosenhan.
Descriptive Statistics Statistics are a method of summarising and analysing data for the purpose of drawing conclusions about the data. Carrying out psychological research often involves collecting a lot of data.
As psychologists therefore we need to have knowledge of statistics so that we can make conclusions about our data. We can make a distinction between descriptive and inferential statistics.
Descriptive statistics simply offer us a way to describe a summary of our data. Inferential statistics go a step further and allow us to make a conclusion related to our hypothesis.
Descriptive statistics give us a way to summarise and describe our data but do not allow us to make a conclusion related to our hypothesis.
When carrying out a test of difference activity C there are two main ways of summarising the data using descriptive statistics. The first way is to carry out of measure of central tendency mean, median or mode for each of the two conditions.
The mean is calculated by adding all the scores together in each condition and then dividing by the number of scores. This is a useful statistic as it takes all of the scores into account but can be misleading if there are extreme values. For example if the scores on a memory test were 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 42, the mean would be 10 which is not typical or representative of the data.
The median is calculated by finding the mid point in on ordered list. The median is calculated by placing all the values of one condition in order and finding the mid- point. This is a more useful measure than the mean when there are extreme values. The mode is the most common value in a set of values.
The second way of summarising and describing data is to calculate a measure of dispersion. This simply shows us the spread of a set of data. A simple way of calculating the measure of dispersion is to calculate the range.
The range is the difference between the smallest and largest value in a set of scores. Although it is a fairly crude measure of dispersion as any one high or low scale can distort the data. A more sophisticated measure of dispersion is the standard deviation which tells us how much on average scores differ from the mean.
When carrying out correlational analysis the data is summarised by presenting the data in a scattergram. It is important that the scattergram has a title and both axes are labelled.
From the scattergram we may be able to say whether there is a strong positive correlation, a weak positive correlation, no correlation, a weak negative correlation or a strong negative correlation but we can not make a conclusion about the hypothesis. A depth cue is something which gives us an indication of how far away an object or image is.
Pictorial depth cues include relative size and linear perspective. Deregowski conducted a review article which involved bringing together research by other psychologists and him-self. Deregowski started his study by reviewing a number of reports of how people in different cultures often have difficulties with the perception of pictures pictorial perception.
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Durbin, Ph.D. Durbin before a lecture on "Hypnosis and Religion" A few years ago, I read an article in Family Weekly titled, "Boom Days For Devil Hypnosis" Hearing that title: what ideas, images, thoughts come to you?
Thought the article had what I considered a very negative title, it was a very positive article on hypnosis in the health care field.
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